Pubmed-indexed Papers on Covid Vaccine Injury

May 05, 2022

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Myocarditis and pericarditis

Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) or sack around the heart (pericardium). This inflammation can reduce the heart’s ability to pump and cause rapid irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Signs and symptoms include chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, and rapid or irregular heartbeats. In a small percentage of cases, persons with myocarditis can be at risk for sudden death following strenuous activity. Some sufferers of myocarditis may require heart surgery or a heart transplant in later life.

  1. Recurrence of Myopericarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in a Male Adolescent (2022). CJC Open [PubMed]
  2. Myocarditis and pericarditis in adolescents after first and second doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (2022). Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes [PubMed]
  3. Risk of Myocarditis from COVID-19 Infection in People Under Age 20: A Population-Based Analysis (2022). medRxiv [PubMed]
  4. Young Male With Myocarditis Following mRNA-1273 Vaccination Against Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) (2022). Circ J [PubMed]
  5. Definite Acute Myocarditis After Coronavirus Disease 2019 mRNA Vaccination (2022). Circ J [PubMed]
  6. Should T2 mapping be used in cases of recurrent myocarditis to differentiate between the acute inflammation and chronic scar? (2022). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  7. Myocarditis Following a COVID-19 Messenger RNA Vaccination: A Japanese Case Series (2022). Intern Med [PubMed]
  8. Self-limited myocarditis presenting with chest pain and ST segment elevation in adolescents after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (2022). Cardiol Young [PubMed]
  9. Hypersensitivity myocarditis and COVID-19 vaccines (2022). Kardiol Pol [PubMed]
  10. Cardiac MRI Findings of Myocarditis After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents (2022). AJR Am J Roentgenol [PubMed]
  11. Clinical and histopathological spectrum of delayed adverse cutaneous reactions following COVID-19 vaccination (2022). J Cutan Pathol [PubMed]
  12. mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine-Associated Myopericarditis in Adolescents: A Survey Study (2022). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  13. Acute myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a 24-year-old man (2022). Rev Port Cardiol [PubMed]
  14. 68Ga-DOTATOC digital-PET imaging of inflammatory cell infiltrates in myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging [PubMed]
  15. Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection (2022). Nat Med [PubMed]
  16. Acute Myocardial Infarction Within 24 Hours After COVID-19 Vaccination: Is Kounis Syndrome the Culprit? (2022). Am J Cardiol [PubMed]
  17. Features of Inflammatory Heart Reactions Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination at a Global Level (2022). Clin Pharmacol Ther [PubMed]
  18. Population-based Incidence of Myopericarditis After COVID-19 Vaccination in Danish Adolescents (2022). Pediatr Infect Dis J [PubMed]
  19. Biventricular systolic dysfunction in acute myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccination (2022). Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  20. Clinically Suspected Myocarditis Temporally Related to COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents and Young Adults: Suspected Myocarditis After COVID-19 Vaccination (2022). Circulation [PubMed]
  21. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After Vaccination for COVID-19 (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  22. Acute myocarditis after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination (2021). Anatol J Cardiol [PubMed]
  23. Transient Cardiac Injury in Adolescents Receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Pediatr Infect Dis J [PubMed]
  24. WITHDRAWN: A Report on Myocarditis Adverse Events in the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) in Association with COVID-19 Injectable Biological Products (2021). Curr Probl Cardiol [PubMed]
  25. Myocarditis after Covid-19 mRNA Vaccination (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  26. Important Insights into Myopericarditis after the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  27. Acute myocarditis associated with anti-COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Clin Exp Vaccine Res [PubMed]
  28. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination – A case series (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  29. Myocarditis Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination: Echocardiography, Cardiac Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings (2021). Circ Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  30. Myocarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Pediatr Emerg Care [PubMed]
  31. Acute Myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination: A case report (2021). Rev Med Interne [PubMed]
  32. Acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade after Covid-19 vaccination (2021). Singapore Med J [PubMed]
  33. A Series of Patients With Myocarditis Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination With mRNA-1279 and BNT162b2 (2021). JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  34. COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis: Case report with literature review (2021). Diabetes Metab Syndr [PubMed]
  35. Myopericarditis in a previously healthy adolescent male following COVID-19 vaccination: A case report (2021). Acad Emerg Med [PubMed]
  36. Unusual Presentation of Acute Perimyocarditis Following SARS-COV-2 mRNA-1237 Moderna Vaccination (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  37. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Myocarditis/Pericarditis before the Introduction of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Korean Children: a Multicenter Study (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  38. [Acute myocarditis in a young adult two days after Pfizer vaccination] (2021). G Ital Cardiol (Rome) [PubMed]
  39. Acute Myocardial Injury Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report and Review of Current Evidence from Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System Database (2021). J Prim Care Community Health [PubMed]
  40. Acute myocarditis following Comirnaty vaccination in a healthy man with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  41. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination (2021). Circ J [PubMed]
  42. Weighing the Risks of Perimyocarditis With the Benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents (2021). J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc [PubMed]
  43. Myocarditis after vaccination against covid-19 (2021). BMJ [PubMed]
  44. Reply to “Letter to the editor: Myocarditis should be considered in those with a troponin rise and unobstructed coronary arteries following PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccination” (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  45. Safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Setting (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  46. COVID-19 vaccines and myocarditis (2021). Arch Cardiovasc Dis [PubMed]
  47. Myocarditis after BNT162b2 vaccination in a healthy male (2021). Am J Emerg Med [PubMed]
  48. Myopericarditis after messenger RNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination in Adolescents 12 to 18 Years of Age (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  49. Acute Myocarditis Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report (2021). J Cardiol Cases [PubMed]
  50. In brief: Myocarditis with the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Med Lett Drugs Ther [PubMed]
  51. Myocarditis in the Setting of Recent COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Case Rep Cardiol [PubMed]
  52. Case Report: Probable Myocarditis After Covid-19 mRNA Vaccine in a Patient With Arrhythmogenic Left Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (2021). Front Cardiovasc Med [PubMed]
  53. Multimodality imaging and histopathology in a young man presenting with fulminant lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiogenic shock after mRNA-1273 vaccination (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  54. An Insight into the Role of Postmortem Immunohistochemistry in the Comprehension of the Inflammatory Pathophysiology of COVID-19 Disease and Vaccine-Related Thrombotic Adverse Events: A Narrative Review (2021). Int J Mol Sci [PubMed]
  55. Myocarditis After SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination: A Vaccine-Induced Reaction? (2021). Can J Cardiol [PubMed]
  56. Chest Pain with New Abnormal Electrocardiogram Development after Injection of COVID-19 Vaccine Manufactured by Moderna (2021). Intern Med [PubMed]
  57. Influenza Vaccination and Myo-Pericarditis in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Investigating the Likelihood of Interaction through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and VigiBase (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  58. COVID 19 Vaccine for Adolescents. Concern about Myocarditis and Pericarditis (2021). Pediatr Rep [PubMed]
  59. In-Depth Evaluation of a Case of Presumed Myocarditis After the Second Dose of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine (2021). Circulation [PubMed]
  60. Lymphohistocytic myocarditis after Ad26.COV2.S viral vector COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc [PubMed]
  61. A case of acute encephalopathy and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction following mRNA-1273 vaccination: possible adverse effect? (2021). Clin Exp Vaccine Res [PubMed]
  62. Myocarditis and Pericarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Inequalities in Age and Vaccine Types (2021). J Pers Med [PubMed]
  63. A review of COVID-19 vaccination and the reported cardiac manifestations (2021). Singapore Med J [PubMed]
  64. STEMI Mimic: Focal Myocarditis in an Adolescent Patient After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). J Emerg Med [PubMed]
  65. Acute Myocardial Infarction Within 24 Hours After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Am J Cardiol [PubMed]
  66. Perimyocarditis in Adolescents After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc [PubMed]
  67. Myocarditis after Covid-19 Vaccination in a Large Health Care Organization (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  68. Case Report: Acute Fulminant Myocarditis and Cardiogenic Shock After Messenger RNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requiring Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (2021). Front Cardiovasc Med [PubMed]
  69. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination: Practical Considerations for Care Providers (2021). Can J Cardiol [PubMed]
  70. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination: magnetic resonance imaging study (2021). Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  71. Acute myocarditis following administration of BNT162b2 vaccine (2021). IDCases [PubMed]
  72. Myocarditis should be considered in those with a troponin rise and unobstructed coronary arteries following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  73. A Case Report for Myopericarditis after BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in a Korean Young Male (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  74. Myocarditis Following Immunization With mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Members of the US Military (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  75. Myocarditis Occurring After Immunization With mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  76. T2 mapping should be utilised in cases of suspected myocarditis to confirm an acute inflammatory process (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  77. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in young adult patients with acute myocarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: a case series (2021). J Cardiovasc Magn Reson [PubMed]
  78. Acute Myopericarditis after COVID-19 Vaccine in Teenagers (2021). Case Rep Cardiol [PubMed]
  79. Fulminant myocarditis and systemic hyperinflammation temporally associated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in two patients (2021). Int J Cardiol [PubMed]
  80. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia, anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies and D-dimer elevation in Thai people After ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (2021). Res Pract Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
  81. Postmortem investigation of fatalities following vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Int J Legal Med [PubMed]
  82. Acute Myocarditis Following mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination (2021). CJC Open [PubMed]
  83. Association of Myocarditis With BNT162b2 Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccine in a Case Series of Children (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  84. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  85. Recurrence of Acute Myocarditis Temporally Associated with Receipt of the mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccine in a Male Adolescent (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  86. Occurrence of acute infarct-like myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination: just an accidental co-incidence or rather vaccination-associated autoimmune myocarditis? (2021). Clin Res Cardiol [PubMed]
  87. Symptomatic Acute Myocarditis in 7 Adolescents After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Pediatrics [PubMed]
  88. Shedding the Light on Post-Vaccine Myocarditis and Pericarditis in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  89. Acute Perimyocarditis Following First Dose of mRNA Vaccine Against COVID-19 (2021). Dtsch Arztebl Int [PubMed]
  90. Myocarditis after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine against Covid-19 in Israel (2021). N Engl J Med [PubMed]
  91. The Novel Platform of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines and Myocarditis: Clues into the Potential Underlying Mechanism (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  92. A Late Presentation of COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Myocarditis (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  93. Myocarditis following mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, a case series (2021). Am Heart J Plus [PubMed]
  94. COVID-19 Vaccine and Death: Causality Algorithm According to the WHO Eligibility Diagnosis (2021). Diagnostics (Basel) [PubMed]
  95. COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine and Myocarditis (2021). Eur J Case Rep Intern Med [PubMed]
  96. Cardiac complications following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review of case reports and case series (2021). Rev Med Virol [PubMed]
  97. Biopsy-proven lymphocytic myocarditis following first mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in a 40-year-old male: case report (2021). Clin Res Cardiol [PubMed]
  98. Acute myocarditis after a second dose of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: a report of two cases (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  99. Severe COVID-19 vaccine associated myocarditis: Zebra or unicorn? (2021). Int J Cardiol [PubMed]
  100. Myocarditis With COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines (2021). Circulation [PubMed]
  101. Myocarditis-induced Sudden Death after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Case Report Focusing on Histopathological Findings (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  102. Myocarditis Associated with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  103. Acute Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Adults Aged 18 Years or Older (2021). JAMA Intern Med [PubMed]
  104. A case report: symptomatic pericarditis post-COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Eur Heart J Case Rep [PubMed]
  105. Myocarditis and pericarditis in association with COVID-19 mRNA-vaccination: cases from a regional pharmacovigilance centre (2021). Glob Cardiol Sci Pract [PubMed]
  106. Myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  107. Perimyocarditis following first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 (Moderna) vaccine in a healthy young male: a case report (2021). BMC Cardiovasc Disord [PubMed]
  108. Myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  109. COVID-19 Vaccine and Myocarditis (2021). Am J Cardiol [PubMed]
  110. Patients With Acute Myocarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). JAMA Cardiol [PubMed]
  111. Acute myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 (2021). Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) [PubMed]
  112. Cardiac Imaging of Acute Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  113. Insights from a murine model of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination-induced myopericarditis: Could accidental intravenous vaccine injection induce myopericarditis? (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  114. Intravenous injection of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine can induce acute myopericarditis in mouse model (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  115. Possible Association Between COVID-19 Vaccine and Myocarditis: Clinical and CMR Findings (2021). JACC Cardiovasc Imaging [PubMed]
  116. [Pericarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine] (2021). Rev Esp Cardiol [PubMed]
  117. Perimyocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Clin Med Insights Cardiol [PubMed]
  118. Myocarditis and Pericarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination: What Do We Know So Far? (2021). Children (Basel) [PubMed]
  119. Myocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  120. Case report: acute myocarditis following the second dose of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (2021). Eur Heart J Case Rep [PubMed]
  121. Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine: A Case Series and Incidence Rate Determination (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  122. Myopericarditis After the Pfizer Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Coronavirus Disease Vaccine in Adolescents (2021). J Pediatr [PubMed]
  123. COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Myocarditis in Adolescents (2021). Pediatrics [PubMed]
  124. Acute Myocardial Infarction and Myocarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). QJM [PubMed]
  125. Myocarditis and Other Cardiovascular Complications of the mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  126. Autopsy Findings and Causality Relationship between Death and COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review (2021). J Clin Med [PubMed]
  127. Temporal association between the COVID-19 Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and acute myocarditis: A case report and literature review (2021). Cardiovasc Revasc Med [PubMed]
  128. mRNA COVID vaccine and myocarditis in adolescents (2021). Hong Kong Med J [PubMed]
  129. Epidemiology of Acute Myocarditis/Pericarditis in Hong Kong Adolescents Following Comirnaty Vaccination (2021). Clin Infect Dis [PubMed]
  130. A case series of acute pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccination in the context of recent reports from Europe and the United States (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  131. Untimely Myocardial Infarction or COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effect (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  132. Temporal relation between second dose BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine and cardiac involvement in a patient with previous SARS-COV-2 infection (2021). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc [PubMed]
  133. Myocarditis Temporally Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Circulation [PubMed]
  134. Acute Myocarditis Following the Administration of the Second BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine Dose (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  135. Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc [PubMed]
  136. Acute myocarditis after the second dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: Serendipity or atypical causal relationship? (2021). Anatol J Cardiol [PubMed]
  137. Use of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine After Reports of Myocarditis Among Vaccine Recipients: Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, June 2021 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  138. Pericarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) [PubMed]
  139. Myocarditis, Pericarditis and Cardiomyopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Heart Lung Circ [PubMed]


is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure.

  1. Takotsubo syndrome after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine (2021). J Cardiol Cases [PubMed]
  2. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis (2021). CEN Case Rep [PubMed]
  3. Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  4. Myocarditis, Pericarditis and Cardiomyopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Heart Lung Circ [PubMed]
  5. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Heart Lung Circ [PubMed]

Thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage

Alterations in the blood’s ability to form clots can lead to the development of clots, or paradoxically, to bleeding. This may include a lower-than-normal number of platelets in the blood, which can also result in easy bruising. People have experienced strokes and bleeding in the brain, heart attacks, blood clots to the lungs, and lack of oxygen to organs, all of which can cause death. Case reports include thrombosis of the major arteries (carotid, distal aorta, iliac, splenic) and limb ischemia. Thrombosis of the venous system include cerebral venous thrombosis as well as splanchnic, renal, superior ophthalmic, portal, and palmar vein thrombosis.

  1. Clinical and biological features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination (2022). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry [PubMed]
  2. Refractory vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) managed with delayed therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) (2022). J Clin Apher [PubMed]
  3. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Developing after COVID-19 Vaccination: VITT, VATT, TTS, and More (2022). Semin Thromb Hemost [PubMed]
  4. Secondary thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: Report of a case of hemorrhage and hematoma after minor oral surgery (2022). J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg [PubMed]
  5. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Neurol Sci [PubMed]
  6. COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia (VITT) and the Shades of Grey in Thrombus Formation (2022). Semin Thromb Hemost [PubMed]
  7. Successful Treatment of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia in a 26-Year-Old Female Patient (2022). Acta Haematol [PubMed]
  8. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (2022). Neuroradiol J [PubMed]
  9. Response to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (2022). QJM [PubMed]
  10. Multiple Sites of Arterial Thrombosis in A 35-Year Old Patient after ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) Vaccination, Requiring Emergent Femoral and Carotid Surgical Thrombectomy (2022). Ann Vasc Surg [PubMed]
  11. Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Pulmonary Embolism After BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in People Aged 75 Years or Older (2022). JAMA [PubMed]
  12. Middle-age Asian male with cerebral venous thrombosis after COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccination (2022). Am J Emerg Med [PubMed]
  13. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia: three cases of immune thrombocytopenia after 107€Š720 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccination in Thailand (2022). Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis [PubMed]
  14. Three cases of acute venous thromboembolism in females after vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 (2022). J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord [PubMed]
  15. Genital necrosis with cutaneous thrombosis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  16. Relapse of immune thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Eur J Haematol [PubMed]
  17. Case report: cerebral sinus vein thrombosis in two patients with AstraZeneca SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (2022). J Neurol [PubMed]
  18. Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Causing Isolated Symptomatic Carotid Occlusion after Covid-19 Vaccine (2022). Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
  19. Age- and Sex-Specific Incidence of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated With Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccination (2022). JAMA Intern Med [PubMed]
  20. The roles of platelets in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (2022). Trends Cardiovasc Med [PubMed]
  21. A case of unusual mild clinical presentation of COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia with splanchnic vein thrombosis (2022). Ann Hepatol [PubMed]
  22. Thrombosis formation after COVID-19 vaccination Immunological Aspects: Review article (2022). Saudi J Biol Sci [PubMed]
  23. Imaging and Hematologic Findings in Thrombosis and Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) Vaccination (2022). Radiology [PubMed]
  24. Unusual Site of Deep Vein Thrombosis After mRNA Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination (2022). Circ J [PubMed]
  25. Fatal vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) post Ad26.COV2.S: first documented case outside US (2022). Infection [PubMed]
  26. A case series of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia in a London teaching hospital (2022). Br J Clin Pharmacol [PubMed]
  27. CAd26.COV2€‘S vaccination can reveal inherited thrombophilia: a case of massive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a young man with normal platelet count (2022). Pol Arch Intern Med [PubMed]
  28. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) (2022). StatPearls [PubMed]
  29. Cerebral venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia post-COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Thromb Res [PubMed]
  30. Immune thrombocytopenia following vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic (2021). Haematologica [PubMed]
  31. Predictors of mortality in thrombotic thrombocytopenia after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccination: the FAPIC score (2021). Eur Heart J [PubMed]
  32. Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia following Ad26.COV2.S vaccine in a man presenting as acute venous thromboembolism (2021). Am J Hematol [PubMed]
  33. Intracerebral Hemorrhage due to Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome after Vaccination against COVID-19: the First Fatal Case in Korea (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  34. Cardiovascular, neurological, and pulmonary events following vaccination with the BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines: An analysis of European data (2021). J Autoimmun [PubMed]
  35. Fatal cerebral haemorrhage after COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen [PubMed]
  36. Management of a patient with a rare congenital limb malformation syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT) (2021). Br J Haematol [PubMed]
  37. Central Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Following an mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination: Are These Reports Merely Co-Incidental? (2021). Am J Case Rep [PubMed]
  38. Antibody epitopes in vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (2021). Nature [PubMed]
  39. Endovascular treatment for vaccine-induced cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and thrombocytopenia following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination: a report of three cases (2021). J Neurointerv Surg [PubMed]
  40. mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine-Related Anaphylactoid Reaction and Coronary Thrombosis (2021). Mayo Clin Proc [PubMed]
  41. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) – a novel clinico-pathological entity with heterogeneous clinical presentations (2021). Br J Haematol [PubMed]
  42. Case study of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome following administration of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Aust J Gen Pract [PubMed]
  43. Mechanisms of Immunothrombosis in Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) Compared to Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection (2021). J Autoimmun [PubMed]
  44. COVID-19 vaccine-associated immune thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT): Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for a new syndrome (2021). Eur J Haematol [PubMed]
  45. Malignant cerebral infarction after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination: a catastrophic variant of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (2021). Nat Commun [PubMed]
  46. Ischaemic stroke as a presenting feature of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (2021). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry [PubMed]
  47. Thrombotic Events after COVID-19 Vaccination in the Over-50s: Results from a Population-Based Study in Italy (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  48. A rare case of COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (VITT) involving the veno-splanchnic and pulmonary arterial circulation, from a UK district general hospital (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  49. Immune thrombocytopenia following immunisation with Vaxzevria ChadOx1-S (AstraZeneca) vaccine, Victoria, Australia (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  50. Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Death following the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine (2021). J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis [PubMed]
  51. Pulmonary embolism, transient ischaemic attack and thrombocytopenia after the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  52. [Acral haemorrhage after the second dose administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A post-vaccinal reaction?] (2021). Med Clin (Barc) [PubMed]
  53. An observational study to identify the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4/polyanion antibodies in Norwegian health care workers after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). J Thromb Haemost [PubMed]
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Vasculitis, include Henoch-schönlein purpura

Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels that can cause thrombosis and be life-threatening.

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Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

A neurological disorder in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks part of the peripheral nervous system €“ the network of nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord. GBS can range from a very mild case with brief weakness to nearly devastating paralysis, leaving the person unable to breathe independently. Fortunately, many people recover from even the most severe cases of GBS. After recovery, some people will continue to have some degree of weakness.

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Facial nerve palsy

This is an immune attack on the nerves that move the muscles of the upper and lower parts of the face. People will often have weakness on one side of the face.

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Acute myelitis, neuromyelitis, inflammatory neuropathy

These conditions are immune or inflammatory attacks on the spinal cord or brain that can cause paralysis.

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This is general brain dysfunction which can be complicated by seizures. People often seem confused and may have troubles with balance, headaches, or vomiting.

  1. A systematic review of cases of CNS demyelination following COVID-19 vaccination (2022). J Neuroimmunol [PubMed]
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Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

A disease that effects the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The underlying mechanism is the destruction by the immune system of the insulating covers of nervous system cells (which is called myelin). Since immune destruction can happen anywhere in the brain or body, people with MS have a wide range of symptoms including changes in sensation, weakness, balance, vision, or speech. They can also experience thinking or emotional problems.

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A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause changes in behavior, movements, or feelings, and in levels of consciousness.

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  1. Depression following ChAdOx1-S/nCoV-19 vaccine (2021). Eur J Psychiatry [PubMed]

Other syndromes

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Other auto-immune disease or reactivation of auto-immune disease

Auto-immune disease is when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks part of the body. Some people experienced new auto-immune disease whereas others experienced a worsening of a known condition.

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  14. Three Cases of Subacute Thyroiditis Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine: Postvaccination ASIA Syndrome (2021). J Clin Endocrinol Metab [PubMed]
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Anaphylaxis, allergic reactions, and asthma

Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. With anaphylaxis and other allergies, including asthma, the body’s immune system reacts abnormally to a foreign substance.

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  7. Pfizer’s vaccine raises allergy concerns (2021). Science [PubMed]
  8. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of the first dose of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine – United States, December 21, 2020-January 10, 2021 (2021). Am J Transplant [PubMed]
  9. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis after receipt of the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine – United States, December 14-23, 2020 (2021). Am J Transplant [PubMed]
  10. Reports of Anaphylaxis After Receipt of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in the US-December 14, 2020-January 18, 2021 (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  11. COVID-19 vaccines increase the risk of anaphylaxis (2021). Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen [PubMed]
  12. Acute Allergic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  13. Practical handling of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: A position paper from German and Austrian Allergy Societies AeDA, DGAKI, GPA and ÖGAI (2021). Allergo J Int [PubMed]
  14. Cumulative Adverse Event Reporting of Anaphylaxis After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) Injections in Japan: The First-Month Report (2021). Drug Saf [PubMed]
  15. Association of Self-reported High-Risk Allergy History With Allergy Symptoms After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). JAMA Netw Open [PubMed]
  16. Allergy to Polyethilenglicole of Anti-SARS CoV2 Vaccine Recipient: A Case Report of Young Adult Recipient and the Management of Future Exposure to SARS-CoV2 (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  17. CoronaVac COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Anaphylaxis: Clinical Characteristics and Revaccination Outcomes (2021). J Asthma Allergy [PubMed]
  18. COVID vaccination and asthma exacerbation: might there be a link? (2021). Int J Infect Dis [PubMed]
  19. Allergic Reactions After COVID-19 Vaccination-Putting Risk Into Perspective (2021). JAMA Netw Open [PubMed]
  20. COVID-19 Vaccine Safety in Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years – United States, December 14, 2020-July 16, 2021 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  21. Risk of severe allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines among patients with allergic skin diseases – practical recommendations. A position statement of ETFAD with external experts (2021). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  22. Immunization practices and risk of anaphylaxis: a current update, comprehensive of COVID-19 vaccination data (2021). Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol [PubMed]
  23. Sex differences in the incidence of anaphylaxis to LNP-mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  24. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a cause of anaphylaxis to the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Clin Exp Allergy [PubMed]
  25. Allergic reactions and adverse events associated with administration of mRNA-based vaccines. A health-care system experience (2021). Allergy Asthma Proc [PubMed]
  26. An academic hospital experience screening mRNA COVID-19 vaccine risk using patient allergy history (2021). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract [PubMed]
  27. Severe allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in Great Britain and USA: Position statement of the German Allergy Societies: Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA) (2021). Allergo J Int [PubMed]
  28. Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis to LNP-Based COVID-19 Vaccines (2021). Mol Ther [PubMed]
  29. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine – United States, December 21, 2020-January 10, 2021 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  30. Biphasic anaphylaxis after exposure to the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (2021). J Med Virol [PubMed]
  31. Allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: statement of the Belgian Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BelSACI) (2021). Acta Clin Belg [PubMed]
  32. Anaphylactic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A call for further study (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  33. Anaphylaxis After the Covid-19 Vaccine in a Patient With Cholinergic Urticaria (2021). Mil Med [PubMed]
  34. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine – United States, December 14-23, 2020 (2021). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [PubMed]
  35. Assessment of Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines With Confirmatory Testing in a US Regional Health System (2021). JAMA Netw Open [PubMed]
  36. Relationship between pre-existing allergies and anaphylactic reactions post mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administration (2021). Vaccine [PubMed]
  37. Pseudo-Anaphylactic Reactions to Pfizer BNT162b2 Vaccine: Report of 3 Cases of Anaphylaxis Post Pfizer BNT162b2 Vaccination (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  38. Allergic reactions to the first COVID-19 vaccine: A potential role of polyethylene glycol? (2021). Allergy [PubMed]
  39. Allergenic components of the mRNA-1273 vaccine for COVID-19: Possible involvement of polyethylene glycol and IgG-mediated complement activation (2021). Allergy [PubMed]
  40. The Risk of Allergic Reaction to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Recommended Evaluation and Management: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, GRADE Assessment, and International Consensus Approach (2021). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract [PubMed]
  41. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). JAMA [PubMed]
  42. Anaphylaxis after Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother [PubMed]
  43. Prolonged Anaphylaxis to Pfizer Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine: A Case Report and Mechanism of Action (2021). Crit Care Explor [PubMed]
  44. Reports of anaphylaxis after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, South Korea, 26 February to 30 April 2021 (2021). Euro Surveill [PubMed]

Lymphadenopathy and axillary adenopathy

This is a swelling of the lymph nodes of unclear significance.

  1. COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Subclinical Axillary Lymphadenopathy on Screening Mammogram (2022). Acad Radiol [PubMed]
  2. Rare case of contralateral supraclavicular lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination: Computed tomography and ultrasonography findings (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  3. Acute onset supraclavicular lymphadenopathy coinciding with intramuscular mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 may be related to vaccine injection technique, Spain, January and February 2021 (2021). Euro Surveill [PubMed]
  4. COVID-19 post-vaccination lymphadenopathy: Report of cytological findings from fine needle aspiration biopsy (2021). Diagn Cytopathol [PubMed]
  5. Unilateral axillary adenopathy in the setting of COVID-19 vaccine: Follow-up (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  6. Unilateral axillary adenopathy induced by COVID-19 vaccine: US follow-up evaluation (2021). Eur Radiol [PubMed]
  7. Lymphadenopathy in COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients: Diagnostic Dilemma in Oncologic Patients (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  8. COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Axillary Adenopathy: Imaging Findings and Follow-Up Recommendations in 23 Women (2021). AJR Am J Roentgenol [PubMed]
  9. Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine mimics lymph node metastases in patients undergoing skin cancer follow-up: A monocentre study (2021). Eur J Cancer [PubMed]
  10. COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Lymphadenopathy on FDG PET/CT: Distinctive Features in Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine (2021). Clin Nucl Med [PubMed]
  11. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea: serial follow-up using ultrasonography (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  12. Regional lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination: Literature review and considerations for patient management in breast cancer care (2021). Eur J Cancer [PubMed]
  13. A Case of Cervical Lymphadenopathy After Vaccination Against COVID-19 (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  14. COVID-19 Vaccination Induced Lymphadenopathy in a Specialized Breast Imaging Clinic in Israel: Analysis of 163 cases (2021). Acad Radiol [PubMed]
  15. COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination-Induced Lymphadenopathy Mimics Lymphoma Progression on FDG PET/CT (2021). Clin Nucl Med [PubMed]
  16. Lymphadenopathy Following COVID-19 Vaccination: Imaging Findings Review (2021). Acad Radiol [PubMed]
  17. Hypermetabolic lymphadenopathy following administration of BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine: incidence assessed by [18F]FDG PET-CT and relevance to study interpretation (2021). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging [PubMed]
  18. COVID-19 vaccine-related unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy: Pattern on screening breast MRI allowing for a benign assessment (2021). Clin Imaging [PubMed]
  19. COVID-19 vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy in breast cancer patients: Case series with a review of literature (2021). Semin Oncol [PubMed]
  20. COVID-19 Vaccine-Related Axillary and Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Current or Prior Breast Cancer and Other Malignancies: Cross-Sectional Imaging Findings on MRI, CT, and PET-CT (2021). Korean J Radiol [PubMed]
  21. COVID-19 vaccine induced Axillary and Pectoral Lymphadenopathy on PET scan (2021). Radiol Case Rep [PubMed]
  22. Evolution of Lymphadenopathy at PET/MRI after COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  23. Cervical lymphadenopathy following coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine: clinical characteristics and implications for head and neck cancer services (2021). J Laryngol Otol [PubMed]
  24. Incidence of Axillary Adenopathy in Breast Imaging After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). JAMA Oncol [PubMed]
  25. Evolving Bilateral Hypermetabolic Axillary Lymphadenopathy on FDG PET/CT Following 2-Dose COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Clin Nucl Med [PubMed]
  26. Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination induced lymphadenopathy on [18F]Choline PET/CT-not only an FDG finding (2021). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging [PubMed]
  27. Lymphadenopathy Associated With the COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  28. COVID-19 vaccination and low cervical lymphadenopathy in the two week neck lump clinic – a follow up audit (2021). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg [PubMed]
  29. Axillary Adenopathy in Patients with Recent Covid-19 Vaccination: A New Diagnostic Dilemma (2021). Korean J Radiol [PubMed]
  30. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination: an increasing presentation to the two-week wait neck lump clinic? (2021). Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg [PubMed]
  31. Massive Cervical Lymphadenopathy Post-COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Ear Nose Throat J [PubMed]
  32. Adenopathy Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Radiology [PubMed]
  33. Unilateral Lymphadenopathy After COVID-19 Vaccination: A Practical Management Plan for Radiologists Across Specialties (2021). J Am Coll Radiol [PubMed]

Cutaneous (skin) effects

Many different allergic, immune reactions, and infections can manifest on the skin as rashes.

  1. Clinical and pathologic correlation of cutaneous COVID-19 vaccine reactions including V-REPP: A registry-based study (2022). J Am Acad Dermatol [PubMed]
  2. A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AZD1222) vaccination (2022). Australas J Dermatol [PubMed]
  3. Postvaccination Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adult with No Evidence of Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection (2022). Emerg Infect Dis [PubMed]
  4. Concerning the unexpected prothrombotic state following some coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines (2022). J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) [PubMed]
  5. Generalized bullous fixed drug eruption after Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccination (2022). Clin Exp Dermatol [PubMed]
  6. Miller Fisher syndrome following Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine (2022). Neurol Sci [PubMed]
  7. Eosinophilic dermatosis after AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  8. Vesiculobullous skin reactions induced by COVID-19 mRNA vaccine: report of four cases and review of the literature (2022). Clin Exp Dermatol [PubMed]
  9. Cutaneous adverse reactions from 35,229 doses of Sinovac and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination: a prospective cohort study in healthcare workers (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  10. Cutaneous reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: a cross-sectional Spanish nationwide study of 405 cases (2022). Br J Dermatol [PubMed]
  11. Purpuric Rash and Thrombocytopenia After the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  12. Cutaneous reactions reported after Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccination: A registry-based study of 414 cases (2021). J Am Acad Dermatol [PubMed]
  13. Exacerbation of Hailey-Hailey Disease Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination (2021). Acta Derm Venereol [PubMed]
  14. Delayed cutaneous reactions after the administration of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 (2021). J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract [PubMed]
  15. Miller Fisher syndrome following BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus 2019 vaccination (2021). BMC Neurol [PubMed]
  16. Rare cutaneous adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines: a case series and review of the literature (2021). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  17. Exacerbation of plaque psoriasis after inactivated and BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A report of two cases (2021). Dermatol Ther [PubMed]
  18. Diffuse prothrombotic syndrome after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administration: a case report (2021). J Med Case Rep [PubMed]
  19. A case series of cutaneous COVID-19 vaccine reactions at Loma Linda University Department of Dermatology (2021). JAAD Case Rep [PubMed]
  20. Autoantibody Release in Children after Corona Virus mRNA Vaccination: A Risk Factor of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome? (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]
  21. Onset/flare of psoriasis following the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona virus vaccine (Oxford-AstraZeneca/Covishield): Report of two cases (2021). Dermatol Ther [PubMed]
  22. Bullous drug eruption after second dose of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine: Case report (2021). J Infect Public Health [PubMed]
  23. Sweet syndrome after Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222) in an elderly female (2021). Dermatol Ther [PubMed]
  24. Coagulopathies after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 May Be Derived from a Combined Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Adenovirus Vector-Triggered Signaling Pathways (2021). Int J Mol Sci [PubMed]
  25. Cutaneous adverse effects of the available COVID-19 vaccines (2021). Clin Dermatol [PubMed]
  26. Widespread purpura annularis telangiectodes following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (2021). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  27. Case Report: Pityriasis Rosea-Like Eruption Following COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Front Med (Lausanne) [PubMed]

Eye disorders

Immune disorders and problems with blood vessels, blood clotting (and bleeding) can manifest as eye problems.

  1. Bilateral Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy After Vaccination Against SARS-CoV-2 (2021). JAMA Ophthalmol [PubMed]
  2. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Presenting After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  3. Central retinal vein occlusion after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: A case report (2021). Indian J Ophthalmol [PubMed]
  4. Bilateral Immune-Mediated Keratolysis After Immunization With SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Viral Vector Vaccine (2021). Cornea [PubMed]
  5. Acute-onset central serous retinopathy after immunization with COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (2021). Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep [PubMed]
  6. Bilateral uveitis after inoculation with COVID-19 vaccine: A case report (2021). Int J Infect Dis [PubMed]
  7. Ocular Adverse Events After COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Ocul Immunol Inflamm [PubMed]


This is syndrome due to direct or indirect muscle injury. It results from death of muscle cells and the release of their contents into the blood stream. This can lead to serious complications such as renal (kidney) failure. In rare cases, rhabdomyolysis can even cause death.

  1. COVID-19 mRNA vaccine induced rhabdomyolysis and fasciitis (2022). J Neurol [PubMed]
  2. Case Report: ANCA-Associated Vasculitis Presenting With Rhabdomyolysis and Pauci-Immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination (2021). Front Immunol [PubMed]
  3. COVID-19 vaccine induced rhabdomyolysis: Case report with literature review (2021). Diabetes Metab Syndr [PubMed]

Kidney injury

Kidney injury can be from an immune attack or from chemicals (drugs) that injure kidney cells.

  1. Acute kidney injury with gross hematuria and IgA nephropathy after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  2. Minimal Change Disease With Severe Acute Kidney Injury Following the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine: A Case Report (2021). Am J Kidney Dis [PubMed]
  3. ANCA glomerulonephritis after the Moderna COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  4. Minimal change disease and acute kidney injury following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  5. New-onset Nephrotic Syndrome after Janssen COVID-19 Vaccination: a Case Report and Literature Review (2021). J Korean Med Sci [PubMed]
  6. A case of gross hematuria and IgA nephropathy flare-up following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (2021). Kidney Int [PubMed]
  7. Haematuria, a widespread petechial rash, and headaches following the Oxford AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination (2021). BMJ Case Rep [PubMed]
  8. Nephrotic Syndrome Following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Against SARScoV-2 (2021). Kidney Int Rep [PubMed]
  9. Systemic capillary leak syndrome after ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccination (2021). CMAJ [PubMed]


These are disorders of muscles that result in weakness or reduced function.

  1. Inflammatory myositis after ChAdOx1 vaccination (2021). Lancet Rheumatol [PubMed]
  2. Transient Oculomotor Palsy Following the Administration of the Messenger RNA-1273 Vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 Diplopia Following the COVID-19 Vaccine (2021). J Neuroophthalmol [PubMed]
  3. Reported orofacial adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines: The knowns and the unknowns (2021). J Oral Pathol Med [PubMed]
  4. Nervous and Muscular Adverse Events after COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials (2021). Vaccines (Basel) [PubMed]


  1. Varicella-zoster and herpes simplex virus reactivation post-COVID-19 vaccination: a review of 40 cases in an International Dermatology Registry (2022). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol [PubMed]
  2. Acute Retinal Necrosis from Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination (2021). Ocul Immunol Inflamm [PubMed]

Other rare disorders

  1. Vaccine-induced interstitial lung disease: a rare reaction to COVID-19 vaccination (2022). Thorax [PubMed]
  2. Pancreas allograft rejection occurring after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (2021). Diabetes Metab [PubMed]
  3. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Associated With the Anti-COVID-19 Vaccine AZD1222 (2021). Cureus [PubMed]
  4. Rituximab-induced acute lympholysis and pancytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination (2021). Clin Case Rep [PubMed]
  5. [Lipschütz Ulcers After the AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine] (2021). Actas Dermosifiliogr (Engl Ed) [PubMed]

Population studies

  1. Prevalence of severe adverse events among health professionals after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 coronavirus vaccine (Covishield) in Togo, March 2021 (2021). Arch Public Health [PubMed]

Cancer progression

  1. Rapid Progression of Angioimmunoblastic T Cell Lymphoma Following BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Booster Shot: A Case Report (2021). Front Med (Lausanne) [PubMed]

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